By Phillip Harding
During the heady, democratic days of the 5th and fourth centuries, the poorer individuals of Athenian society, the decrease periods of zeugitai and thetes, enjoyed an exceptional dominance in either family and international politics. At domestic, the participatory nature of the structure required their presence not just within the lawcourts and meeting, but in addition in lots of the minor magistracies; in another country, they have been the motive force of the military, which ensured Athens’ keep an eye on of the Aegean and the Black seas. Their participation in any respect degrees used to be made attainable by means of nation pay (for jury responsibility, attendance within the meeting, public place of work and army service). within the 5th century nation pay used to be financed principally during the tribute paid through participants of the empire, supplemented by way of the liturgical contributions of the wealthy and, starting in the course of the battle, a estate tax (the eisphora). within the fourth century, virtually the full burden used to be shouldered by means of taxation upon the rich, particularly those that owned estate.
In this ebook, writer Phillip Harding strains the key adjustments that happened within the management of the country that finally disadvantaged the reduce periods in their supremacy and transferred energy into the palms of the rich land-owners. issues replaced notably after Athens’ defeat within the Lamian (or Hellenic) warfare in 322BC. Over the following a number of many years, restrict of the franchise, removing of pay for a few public places of work, the lack of the army, the elevated dependence upon neighborhood grain from the bigger estates in Attika, the elimination of the tax burden from the wealthy by way of the finishing of such significant liturgies because the trierarchia and the choregia and the forsaking of the eisphora all contributed to this change.
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Extra info for Athens Transformed, 404–262 BC: From Popular Sovereignty to the Dominion of Wealth (Routledge Monographs in Classical Studies)
Athens Transformed, 404–262 BC: From Popular Sovereignty to the Dominion of Wealth (Routledge Monographs in Classical Studies) by Phillip Harding